Analysis on the Usage Characteristics of CNC Machine Tool Spindle Drive System

cnc machine tools continue to increase productivity, improve the mechanical structure, and expand the processing range. The spindle speed and output of the machine tool continue to increase, the spindle speed range continues to expand, the spindle constant speed range is larger, and the automatic tool change spindle stop function.

In order to meet the above requirements, the spindle drive must be driven by a stepless speed regulation system. In a typical situation, the spindle drive only has speed control requirements, and the position control requirements are few, so the spindle control system only has a speed control loop.
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Because the spindle requires a constant power and speed adjustment range, it is unreasonable to use a permanent magnet motor, and a separately excited DC servo motor and a cage induction AC servo motor are often used.

The main rotary motion of CNC machine tools does not require screws or other linear motion mechanisms, and the spindle drive and feed drive of the machine tool are very different.
CNC machine tools
In the beginning, CNC machine tools used a DC spindle drive system, but due to the commutation limitation of the DC motor, the constant output speed range of most systems is very small. With the development of microprocessor technology and high-power transistor technology, the AC spindle drive system was applied to the spindle drive of CNC machine tools in the early 1980s. At present, the newly produced CNC machine tools at home and abroad basically adopt AC spindle drive system, which will completely replace DC spindle drive system. This is because AC motors are not limited in terms of high speed and large capacity like DC motors. The performance of AC spindle drive systems has reached the level of DC drive systems, the noise is reduced and the price is driven by DC spindles. There are not enough systems.

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